• Assessment is an ongoing process which involves the systematic collection, analysis, and integration of information (Hoy & Gregg, 1994).

  • Educators do not assess people. Instead, we evaluate their abstract psychological attributes/traits/constructs. e.g. linguistic ability, logical thinking, leadership ...etc.

What is the difference between assessment and measurement?

  • Measurement of the psychological attributes occurs when a quantitative value is assigned to the behavioral sample collected by using a test (Crocker & Algina, 1986).

  • Assessment could use qualitative or/and quantitative data, and could be formal (e.g. test) or informal (e.g. observation) (Hoy & Gregg, 1994).

How do we use the information resulted from assessment?

  • Feedback to improve instruction

  • Monitoring progress/Diagnosis

  • Communications to parents

  • Selection:

    • Sociology--social stratification

    • Tracking

  • Motivation:

  • The more frequently evaluations take place, the more students generally achieve
  • (Crooks, 1988, Kulik & Kulik, 1988, Peckam & Roe, 1977)

Paradigms of Assessments

  • Summative vs. Formative

    • "How did you do?" (e.g. UK)

    • "How are you doing?" (e.g. US)

  • Norm-referenced vs. Criterion referenced

    • Mental abilities were distributed as a "normal curve"--Galton

    • A "normal curve" is a result of no/poor instruction. With intervention the curve should be positively skewed (Smith & Ragan, 1993).

  • Fragmented vs. holistic (Camboure & Turbill,1994)


Crocker, L. M. & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York : Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, c1986.

Crooks, T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices in students. Review of Educational Reearch, 58, 438-481.

Hoy, C. & Gregg, N. (1994). Assessment: The special educator's role. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Kulik, C. L. & Kuilk, J. A. (1986, April). Effects of testing for mastery on student learning. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.

Peckham, P. D. & Roe, W. D. (1977). The effect of frequent testing. Journal of Research and development in Education, 10, 40-50.

Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1993). Instructional design.. New York : Maxwell Macmillan International.


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