- Assessment is an ongoing process which involves the systematic
collection, analysis, and integration of information (Hoy & Gregg,
- Educators do not assess people. Instead, we evaluate their abstract
psychological attributes/traits/constructs. e.g. linguistic ability,
logical thinking, leadership ...etc.
- Measurement of the psychological attributes occurs when a
quantitative value is assigned to the behavioral sample collected by
using a test (Crocker & Algina, 1986).
- Assessment could use qualitative or/and quantitative data, and could
be formal (e.g. test) or informal (e.g. observation) (Hoy & Gregg,
- Feedback to improve instruction
- Monitoring progress/Diagnosis
- Communications to parents
- Sociology--social stratification
- The more frequently evaluations take place, the more students
- (Crooks, 1988, Kulik & Kulik, 1988, Peckam & Roe, 1977)
- Summative vs. Formative
- "How did you do?" (e.g. UK)
- "How are you doing?" (e.g. US)
- Norm-referenced vs. Criterion referenced
- Mental abilities were distributed as a "normal curve"--Galton
- A "normal curve" is a result of no/poor instruction. With
intervention the curve should be positively skewed (Smith & Ragan,
- Fragmented vs. holistic (Camboure & Turbill,1994)
Crocker, L. M. & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and
modern test theory. New York : Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, c1986.
Crooks, T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices in
Review of Educational Reearch, 58, 438-481.
Hoy, C. & Gregg, N. (1994). Assessment: The special educator's
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Kulik, C. L. & Kuilk, J. A. (1986, April). Effects of testing for
mastery on student learning. Paper presented at the annual convention of
the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.
Peckham, P. D. & Roe, W. D. (1977). The effect of frequent testing.
Journal of Research and development in Education, 10, 40-50.
Smith, P. & Ragan, T. (1993). Instructional design.. New York :
Maxwell Macmillan International.
Table of Contents
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